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InternationalThe mystery of black diamonds

The mystery of black diamonds

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why scientists believe that they came from outer space?

The largest black diamond was put up for auction. He is over a billion years old. The gemstone weighs 555.55 carats. But the mystery is that scientists still cannot unambiguously say where he and other black diamonds came from. The Russian media that writes about how the world will change in the future, about technology, science, space and IT – “Hi-tech” reports what theories are about this.

Black diamonds could have come from outer space, they are found only in the territory of two countries, and they are not always completely black – this is the main thing that we know about these unusual crystals.

What are black diamonds?

The real name of such diamonds – carbonado – is a polycrystalline variety of cubic black diamond. They are described as fine-grained, porous aggregates. They may be black, gray or slightly green in color.

The name carbonado comes from the word coal, as outwardly these diamonds looked like ordinary coal. The word began to be used when crystals were first found in Brazil in the 18th century.

The real name of such diamonds – carbonado – is a polycrystalline variety of cubic black diamond. They are described as fine-grained, porous aggregates. They may be black, gray or slightly green in color.

How are black diamonds formed?

The diamonds turned black due to tiny black inclusions and cracks. Most black diamonds are opaque and have a metallic sheen. There are units that can partially skip color. There are also different color combinations: some are black and some are dark brown. This can be seen if the stone is viewed from different angles.

For the first time, carbonados were discovered in 1843 in Brazil in alluvial deposits in the Cincora region. From the point of view of geology, all diamonds are formed in the same way in all territories. But at the same time, since 1900, for the entire period of diamond mining at popular deposits, not a single carbonado has been discovered. There are several explanations for this.

• Space theory

There is a version that black diamonds appeared on Earth from outer space, for example, after a supernova explosion.

Researchers from the United States have discovered rare compounds of titanium and nitrogen in carbonado, previously found only in meteorites. In another work, laboratory staff used an infrared synchrotron and discovered hydrogen, which is common in space, in carbonado. They noted that the diamond dust from which the crystals were obtained could have appeared after the rebirth of a supernova several billion years ago.

• Earth theory

But there is also a version that carbonados formed on Earth. Its supporters argue that in 1993 black diamonds were found in unusual volcano rocks called avachites.

US geologist Aaron Celestian believes that carbonades appeared in the bowels of the Earth and lie deeper than ordinary diamonds.

Where are black diamonds found?

Ordinary diamonds are mined in kimberlite rock, but carbonado is mined in alluvial residual deposits. There are tiny particles of diamonds in the crystals, but there are no remnants of minerals that form and are found deep in the mantle. This is what makes them different from regular diamonds.

The composition of carbonado contains hydrogen, nitrogen and osbornite, the latter is a natural variety of titanium nitride, which was found in meteorites.

Carbonado contains hydrogen, nitrogen and osbornite, the latter is a natural variety of titanium nitride, which was found in meteorites

When did black diamonds appear on Earth?

Geologists have calculated that black diamonds appeared on Earth approximately 2.6 to 3.5 billion years ago. Most often they are found in the Central African Republic and Brazil.

According to the researchers, during this period of time, the territories of modern Brazil and the Central African Republic were part of the Gondwana supercontinent. It is assumed that it was at this time that a meteorite that transferred diamonds hit our planet. Therefore, all the current deposits of carbonado are located in such a small area.

All hypotheses of the origin of black diamonds?

1. The emergence of organic carbon, which was under high pressure in the bowels of the Earth.

2. Impact or impact metamorphism is a process of transformation of the structure and mineral composition of rocks as a result of the fall of large meteorites on the Earth’s surface.

3. Radiation-induced formation of diamonds during spontaneous fission of uranium and thorium.

4. Accumulation in organic-rich sediments due to rapid pyrometamorphic processes, such as lightning strikes.

5. Formation inside a giant star that exploded in a supernova long ago.

6. Formation in interstellar space due to a collision with an asteroid.

The study of black diamonds will help scientists understand more about the structure of the bowels of the Earth and their formation, as well as the composition of celestial bodies that could transfer crystals to our planet. So far, the history of the origin of carbonado remains a mystery.

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