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Hajj in Islamic Perspective

Charlie W. Grease
Charlie W. Grease
CharlieWGrease - Reporter on "Living" for The European Times News

Another rite, like prayer and fasting, which is one of the five mandatory pillars of Islam and supports its doctrinal dome, is the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj). The Koran says about it this way: “I do the best Hajj (great pilgrimage) and die (small pilgrimage) for the sake of Allah, and not for the sake of any benefit in this life and glory” (K.2: 196). “They (new moons – auth.) determine the timing of the conduct of their affairs for people, and also determine the time of the Hajj (pilgrimage), which is one of the foundations of your religion” (K.2: 189). Every “true believer” is commanded to visit sacred places for Muslims at least once in his life. “The Messenger of Allah said: “In the period between two small pilgrimages, a person receives the expiation of all sins, and the reward for a large pilgrimage is paradise.” However, despite the obligation of this prescription, the Koran says that only those who are able to do it and who are able to undertake this feat can perform the hajj: “To perform the hajj to this House is an obligation for those who are able to perform it (hajj to the House) “(K.3:97),” Allah commanded those who can go to this House, so that they respond to this call (make Hajj) and arrive at the House on foot or on camels “(K.22:27 ).

Initially, the pilgrimage consisted of visiting the Kaaba and performing the corresponding rites. Subsequently, the Hajj included a visit to the grave of Muhammad in Medina and prayers in the mosques of Hijaz (the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula is the sacred land of Muslims). Followers of the Shiite trend in Islam make an additional pilgrimage to the graves of Imam Hussein in Karbala, the fourth (righteous) Caliph, cousin of Muhammad Ali ibn Abu Talib in Najaf, Imam Reza in Mashhad and the “holy” Mansum in Qom. This pilgrimage of Shiites to the graves of their imams is usually called not a hajj, but a ziyarat – a visit.

Sharia provides special provisions regarding the pilgrimage to Mecca:

Firstly, the one who decides to go on the Hajj must be of age. Women under forty must be accompanied by one of their male relatives.

Secondly, adequate, not insane, and also free (not a slave).

Should not make a pilgrimage for the sake of forbidden and sinful deeds (robbery, murder, theft, etc.). Should also refrain from traveling if there are more urgent matters or if the only possible route represents a serious danger to life.

It is not obligatory for the poor to make the Hajj, unless someone undertakes to provide for both his trip and the maintenance of his family, and there is great confidence that the benefactor will indeed fulfill his promise.

You must have with you “tasrih al-hajj” (permission to participate in the hajj). In view of the dangers that await the traveler, it is also considered obligatory to make a will before going on a pilgrimage.

Finally, the pilgrim, as mentioned above, must be able to perform the Hajj. This means:

Have a road food reserve with you.

Vehicle for the trip, as well as the ability to purchase a ticket for all necessary modes of transport.

To be physically healthy in order to fulfill all the requirements of the Hajj and endure all the difficulties of the journey.

To have a sufficient amount of funds to support the family or those for whom he is entrusted with care. Must be able to properly equip his household so that it does not fall into disrepair during his pilgrimage.

Sharia also provides for hajj for hire. If a Muslim has the means to make a pilgrimage, but does not have health for this, he can send another person instead of himself. At the same time, the one who performed the Hajj for hire, for someone, does not himself receive the honorary status of “Hajji” (performed the Hajj) and must once again perform the Hajj for himself. Sharia permits the performance of Hajj for hire by a man for a woman and vice versa. At the same time, Sharia condemns those who, not having sufficient health to travel, nevertheless take up this business, putting themselves in danger. There are various organizations around the world that provide assistance in performing the Hajj for low-income Muslims.

According to the rules of the Hajj, pilgrims must be dressed in a special attire – a scar. It consists of two parts of white calico or other linen. One piece is wrapped around the body below the waist, the other, larger in size, is thrown over the left shoulder and passed under the right armpit, thus covering the upper body. In men, the head should be open. Women performing Hajj and wearing ihram are allowed to have their faces open, but their hair must be hidden in any case. There is an opinion that a woman does not have to wear ihram at all, she can perform the entire ceremony in any of her clothes, but always with her head covered. (Gulnara Kerimova. “The Road to the House of Allah” https://www.cidct.org.ua/ru/about/). If the Hajj falls during the hot season, the use of umbrellas is allowed. Sandals are worn on the feet, but you can also go barefoot. The pilgrim must set foot on the land of Hijaz already in ihram. A person who has put on ihram, according to the rules, can no longer take it off until he finishes the entire ceremonial.

The second, more extended meaning of the word “ihram” is the adoption of certain prohibitions, putting on special clothes, entering the “sacred” land and, in fact, the beginning of the performance of the Hajj rites. The one who violated the prescription of ihram must atone for his guilt by sacrificing a ram on the eve of the holiday of kurban – bayram. The Qur’an regulates all these actions in some detail: “When you … after having died, interrupted the “ihram” before performing the Hajj, then you will have to enter the “Ihram” for the Hajj again, sacrifice a sheep and distribute it to the poor near the Forbidden Mosque. Whoever is unable to make a sacrifice must fast for three days in Mecca during the Hajj and seven days after returning home. If he is a resident of Mecca, then he does not need, in this case, to make a sacrifice and fast ”(K.2: 196). It is forbidden for a person dressed in ihram to cut his nails, shave, cut his hair “If one of you is sick or has some kind of ailment in his head and had to cut his hair, then ransom by fasting or alms, or by any pious deeds. He can shave or cut his hair, but he must fast for three days or feed six poor people for one day, or sacrifice a sheep and distribute meat to the poor and needy ”(K.2: 196).

It is forbidden to smoke, raise your voice, offend anyone, shed blood, kill even a fly, pick leaves from trees, etc. “During the Hajj, one should not approach women (this includes: sexual intercourse, kissing, talking on these topics – all this is a sin before Allah). Debauchery and bickering are also a sin during the Hajj” (K.2:197). Violation of these prohibitions makes the Hajj invalid. During the Hajj, the “faithful” is commanded to completely immerse himself in thoughts of Allah.

Hajj begins with a sevenfold circuit (tawaf) around the Kaaba, which is performed counterclockwise. The number “seven” is considered sacred by the Arabs. Pilgrims enter the courtyard of the forbidden mosque (Al-Haram) through the gate “babul-nijat” (gate of salvation). At the threshold of the Kaaba, the participants of the ceremony pronounce the words in Arabic: “Labbaik Allahuma labbeik. La ball of lacquer, labbake ”(K.2: 198) (Here I am in front of You, O Allah. You have no partner, You are alone). Tawwafa (bypass), as a rule, is performed under the guidance of a voluntary seid – an expert on the rules of bypass.

The kaaba itself is a black stone (granite) building in the shape of a cube (15 – 10 – 12 meters), covered with a black kiswa (a black woven coverlet with verses of the Koran embroidered on it in gold), which is replaced every year with a new one. The corners of the Kaaba are located on the cardinal points and have the names “Yemeni” (southern), “Iraqi” (northern), “Levantine” (western) and “stone” (eastern), in which the “black stone” is just mounted. Initially, in the pre-Islamic era (jahili), the kaaba was a pagan temple with a pantheon of folk gods. Now for Muslims, the Kaaba has a unique meaning as the first house of worship to Allah. It symbolizes absolute monotheism, the perfect uniqueness of Allah, the absence of any partners in him, which the Koran does not get tired of repeating in many suras. It is believed that the Kaaba – the main mosque of Muslims, is under the throne of Allah, and his throne is located above it in the sky.

In the left corner of the outer eastern wall of the kaaba there is a gilded door, and a little lower and to the left of it, in one of the corners of the kaaba at a height of 1.5 meters, there is a niche with a “black stone”

– al-hajar al-aswad). This oval stone, set in a silver frame at the end of the seventh century, is known to be part of the original structure built by Abraham and Ismail. According to Muslim tradition, it was given to Adam as a reminder of paradise. According to another version, he was Adam’s guardian angel, but was turned to stone after overlooking and allowing his ward to fall. It is alleged that the black stone was originally white, but later turned black, saturated with human sins, or from the touch of a woman who was in a state of impurity. At the same time, it is believed that inside the stone everything also remains white, and only its outer side has turned black. With a small number of people, Muslims manage to stick their heads into the niche and kiss the “black stone”, but with a large confluence of pilgrims, not everyone manages to venerate this “black shrine”. People only have time to touch the stone with their hand, after which they kiss the hand and apply it to the eyes.

There are different opinions about the real nature of the stone. Scientific circles settled on its cosmic meteorite origin. A feature of the “stone” is that it is not immersed in water and can float on its surface. It is thanks to this property that the authenticity of the black stone was confirmed in 951 when it was returned to Mecca after it was stolen by the Qarmatians in 930. There is a walking legend that a black stone hangs in the air. In fact, he does not levitate, but is fixed in the granite wall of the Kaaba, which is obvious to everyone. This misunderstanding most likely arose as a result of a confusion of two Arabic explications (legends) – the history of the black stone and the maqam Ibrahim stone (Abraham’s standing place), about which it is said that it could hang in the air and served Abraham as a floating forest during the construction of the Kaaba. Naturally, neither of these stones currently fly, and both obey the natural laws of gravity.

An interesting feature of the stone-kissing ceremony for Christians is that this action has absolutely no justification in the Muslim tradition. In order not to be convicted of idolatry, Muslims do not attach any religious significance to the stone itself and claim that it has never been an object of worship. The only reason why a simple stone has been so honored is because of blind imitation of the actions of Muhammad, who kissed it and thus began this tradition. All faqihs (lawyers) of the Shafi’i madhhab condemned kissing any inanimate object with the intention of taabud (i.e. worshiping Allah and approaching him), except for a black stone or muzhaf (copy, copy, plural masahif) of the Koran. The second Caliph Omar ibn Khattab said on this occasion: “By Allah, truly I know that you are just a stone, you do not benefit or harm, and if I had not seen that the Prophet was kissing you, I would not have kissed you”150 .

Muslim tradition conveys an incident that took place during the life of the companions of Muhammad (Sahab), which concerns a detour (tavwaf) around the Kaaba. “During the tawaf, Muawiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) bypassing the Kaaba touched all its corners. Seeing this, Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with both of them) said that one should not touch two corners (two corners: except for the Yemeni corner and the corner with a black stone). He said: “Is there something in this house (Kaaba) that one should stay away from?” Ibn Abbas said, after reading a verse from the Qur’an: “So there was a beautiful example for you in the Messenger of Allah,” after which Muawiya left this action. Brought by Imam Bukhari”151.

Having made a sevenfold circuit (tawaf) around the Kaaba, a Muslim is not forbidden to spend as much time as he likes in prayer near it. Before leaving, he must perform two rak’ah prayers.

Opposite the gilded door of the Kaaba, 15 meters from it, towers maqam Ibrahim (standing of Abraham). A stone slab is placed here, according to Muslims, with footprints of Abraham (Ibrahim). Here, as a sign of respect for the prophet Ibrahim, the pilgrims read a prayer twice: “We ordered the people to make the place of Ibrahim standing during the construction of the Kaaba a place for prayer” (K.2: 125). According to Islamic legend, the angel Jabriel brought to the prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) a flat stone that could hang in the air and served the prophet as scaffolding during the construction of the kaaba. Muslims believe that the builders of the inviolable or forbidden mosque in Mecca (kaaba) are Abraham (Ibrahim) and his son Ismail: “Remember the history of the construction of the Inviolable Mosque in Mecca by Ibrahim and his son Ismail … here, Ibrahim with his son Ismail lay the foundations of the House » (K.2:125,127). Out of respect for Abraham, Muslims call him “Ibrahim Khalilullah” (Abraham is a friend of Allah): “Ibrahim personifies the unity of all religions – Muslims, Jews and Christians … Verily, Allah honored Ibrahim by calling him a friend!” (K.4:125) This is naturally taken from the Christian Bible: “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him for righteousness, and he was called the friend of God” (James 2:23; 2Chr.20:7).

“From the oldest and only history of Abraham, written by Moses, from which information about the life of this patriarch can be obtained, we learn that Abraham never was where the city of Mecca was, and therefore did not build the Kaaba in Mecca. On the basis of verse 19 of the poem (imoallaqaty) by the Arab poet Zogeir bin Abu Solyn, a contemporary of Muhammad, G.S. Sablukov fully proves that the Kaaba was a pagan temple built by “some of the Koreishites and Jorgomites” not earlier than 500 years before the appearance of Muhammad. (See the work of G.S. Sablukov “Muhammedan’s stories about the qibla” pp. 149–157)”152.

Next to the maqam Ibrahim is another building, decorated with colorful Arabic ornaments. There is a well zem – zem (or deputy – deputy) in it. According to the Islamic interpretation of the biblical story (Gen. 21:14–21) about the case of Hagar (Hajara – considered in Islam the second wife of Ibrahim) and her son Ismail, after Abraham left them in the waterless valley of Mecca, Hagar (Hajara) began hastily look for water. In desperation, she ran around two small hills seven times, until finally she saw a spring near her son dying of thirst, which still exists. In memory of this event, pilgrims make a seven-fold ritual run – sai (effort) between the hills of Safa and Merv: “Allah exalted “as-Safa” and “al-Marwa” – two hills, making them reserved places of God for performing one of the rites of the Hajj ” (K. 2:158). Some believe that the source also received its name from the words with which Hagar called her son to her, saying: zyam – zyam, which in Egyptian means – come, come. According to another version, when Hagar (Hajarah) saw the water, she was afraid that all the water would flow out, and said: “Stop – stop” (zam – zam), and the water calmed down.

Water from the source of earth – earth is considered blessed and healing. It is believed that its origins are in paradise. There are many stories about the healing properties of this water. Pilgrims collect it in vessels and vials and deliver it to all parts of the world. Out of respect for this water, it is recommended to drink it while standing. At the same time, it is commanded not only to drink it, but to drink in full, i.e. in large quantities, otherwise you can be considered a hypocrite (munafiq), since a person, as it were, shows his contempt for water. The hadith on this subject reads as follows: “A true believer drinks in full from the source of Zam-Zam, while a munafiq does not drink in full (that is, it is, as it were, a sign of hypocrisy – do not drink enough from Zam-Zam).” There is a hadith attributed to Muhammad, in which he considers even a simple respectful view of the Kaaba and the source of zam-zam to be worship of Allah: Alima (Muslim scholars experts in the Koran, Sharia, Arabic, Persian, Turkish and other languages. Alims were considered the guardians of traditional and moral norms – author) and Zam – Zam. (Moreover) whoever looks at Zam-Zam, his sins will be forgiven.”153 It is also believed that a person whose stomach gets zam-zam water will not be in hell, since the fire of hell and the water from the source of zam-zam cannot be in the same place. Currently, to provide water to millions of pilgrims, the well is equipped with an electric motor.

The next action of the Hajj after the ritual run is the stoning of Satan. This ceremony takes place at the Jamra Bridge in the Mina Valley, about 25 km from Mecca. Pilgrims collect seven stones and throw them at three special stone pillars (jamarat), which symbolize the devil: “And give praise to Allah on the days indicated when the pilgrims stone Shaitan in the Mina Valley, on the 11th, 12th and 13th zu-l-hijji” (K.2:203). First, seven stones are thrown at a small pillar (Jamarat al-Ula), then at a medium one (Jamarat al-Wusta) and then at a large pillar (Jamarat al-Aqaba). At the same time, it is desirable to pronounce takbir (Allahu akbar). According to Islamic tradition, these stone steles mark the places where the devil appeared to Abraham, who tried to prevent the prophet from sacrificing Ismail and whom Abraham, together with his son Ismail, stoned.

After visiting Mount Muzdalif, on the ninth day of the pilgrimage, the pilgrims head for 24 km. from Mecca to the valley of Arafat, where they stand (wukuf) at Mount Arafat from noon to evening. “When the pilgrims leave Arafat and reach Muzdalifah, they need to remember Allah in a reserved place – on the Holy Mount Muzdalifah. From here they need to cry out to God, saying: “Labbaika!”, “Labbaika!”, i.e. “Here I am in front of You! O Allah! Here I am in front of You! You have no equal! Glory and praise to Thee! All power belongs to You!” Allahu Akbar! i.e. Allah is great!” (K.2:196) According to Muslim legend, Mount Arafat is the place where Adam and Eve met after their expulsion from paradise. Here pilgrims also listen to the sermon (khutba) of the Meccan imam. Khutba usually begins with the glorification of Allah and his messenger, then explains the origin of the Hajj and the meaning of the rite of sacrifice. If the mullah or imam – khatib has the relevant experience, then he wraps the sermon in the form of rhymed prose. With the most massive visits to these places, the pandemonium here is huge. Muslims even have information that mass gatherings of pilgrims during the Hajj period can be observed from space.

The next day after this, the feast of sacrifice is celebrated – Aid al – adha (Kurban – Bayram). Muslims perform a kind of Old Testament sacrifice, slaughtering sacrificial animals (sheep, goat, cow or camel): “We have made one of the rites of religion with which you approach people, the slaughter and sacrifice of camels and cows during the Hajj” (K.22 :36). This rite was established in memory of Abraham’s sacrifice of his son Ismail (according to the Bible, Isaac). Symbolically, this rite should remind the “faithful” of the spirit of Islam, when submission to the will of Allah is of paramount importance for a Muslim. Since 2/3 of the sacrificial meat is subsequently distributed to the poor (thin, saadaka – a ritual treat), this Old Testament rudiment also reminds of charity and the desire of the “orthodox” to share their earthly goods with the poor co-religionists. Saudi authorities prepare sacrificial animals for this ceremony in advance. Also, ditches are dug in advance, where, in order to avoid the appearance of infections, they dump, fill with lime and cover with sand mountains of slaughtered cattle, whose meat turned out to be unclaimed. According to Islamic doctrine, animals sacrificed on the holiday of Kurban – Bairam, on the Day of Judgment, will recognize their owners, who sacrificed them. Riding on these animals, Muslims will reach paradise by crossing the Sirat Bridge.

After that, the pilgrims shave or cut their hair and nails. All this is buried in the ground. Many natives use this part of the rite wisely and for this purpose become hairdressers for a while, which makes a good living. Moreover, for a short period of pilgrimage, the local population provides for itself for the entire next year, after which Mecca and Medina sink into a 10-month hibernation until the next Hajj.

Before heading to Medina, pilgrims make a farewell detour around the Kaaba (tavvaf al-vida), after which they receive the honorary status of “haji” (hajj for women) and have the right to wear a green turban, and in the Caucasus a green ribbon on a hat. After the sacrifice and shaving of the hair, the prohibitions regarding marital relations and other prohibitions that a person takes upon himself with entering into ihram are removed.

The small pilgrimage (umrah – visit, visit) includes four main actions: ihram, going around the kaaba, a ritual run between the hills (sai) and shaving or cutting hair on the head. It can take place at any time of the year. As a rule, Umrah is performed either at the beginning of the Hajj, after which you can limit yourself to it alone and stop the pilgrimage, or at the end of the Hajj. Regarding the obligatory nature of the small pilgrimage, the opinions of scientists were divided. Some of them (imams Ash – Shafi’i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal) believed that the small pilgrimage is as obligatory as the big one (hajj). At the same time, they relied on the verse of the Qur’an: “And in the best way make the Hajj (great pilgrimage) and die (small pilgrimage) for the sake of Allah” (K.2: 196). Another part of the theologians (Imams Abu Hanifa, Malik ibn Anas) believed that the small pilgrimage refers to desirable deeds (sunnah) and is performed only once in a lifetime. As an argument, they pointed to the fact that Muhammad did not include Umrah among the five pillars of Islam. “Also, in the hadith narrated by Jabir, it is said: “A Bedouin came to the Messenger of Allah and asked: “O Prophet, tell me about the small pilgrimage, is it obligatory?” To which the answer followed: “No, but making you a small pilgrimage is good for you” ”(See: At – Tirmizi M. Jami’u at – tirmizi [Collection of hadiths of Imam at – Tirmizi]. Riyadh: al – Afkjar hell – pressure, 1998. S. 169, hadith No. 931)157.

At the end of everything, Muslims visit the tomb of Muhammad in Medina. This action does not apply to the Hajj, but a sense of Muslim duty and gratitude to Muhammad for the contribution that he made to the course of world history encourages the “faithful” to visit Medina. The mosque of Mohammed in Medina, although smaller than the Meccan one, is still striking in its size. In the south-eastern part of it is the tomb of the Arab “prophet”. Approaching his tomb, Muslims should say: “Peace and prayer to you, O prophet, beloved of Allah, O great seer.”

There is an opinion of Imam Nawawi regarding visiting the grave of Muhammad. He says that “it is reprehensible to touch her with your hand and kiss her, according to the correct adab (culture, etiquette, traditions – author) one must be at a distance from her, as if someone came to visit the Prophet during his lifetime. It will be right. And one should not be deceived by the actions of many ordinary people who violate these adab. Their danger lies in the fact that they believe that touching with a hand, etc. contributes to obtaining more barakat (the goodness of Allah – ed.), and this is all from their ignorance, because the barakat is in what corresponds to Sharia and the words of the Alims (authoritative Muslim scholars – ed.), so how do they want to succeed, contrary to the correct adab “. (Matn Idah fi manasik li an-Navii. S.161. Ed. dar kutub ilmiya. Beirut. First edition)158.

Next to the grave of Muhammad are the graves of his companions and caliphs – Abu Bekr and Omar. On the territory of the mosque in a small cemetery called “Jannat al-Bagi” – eternal paradise, there are the graves of the third caliph Osman, the daughter of Muhammad Fatima and his last wife Aisha. Women who adhere to the Shia direction in Islam, be sure to visit the grave of Fatima, where they distribute alms to the poor. In addition to the grave of Fatima, Shiite Muslims must visit the grave of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib in Najaf and his son Imam Hussein in Karbala (Iraq), as well as one of the descendants of Ali Imam Reza in Mashhad (Iran) and the grave of Mansum in Qom, the sister of the Imam Reza. Despite the fact that there are many graves of the descendants of Shia imams and they are located in many cities of the world, it is obligatory to visit only the graves of imams Hussein and Reza. Shiites who make a pilgrimage to these graves receive the status of “Kerbalai” and “Meshedi”.

For those who do not have the opportunity to perform the hajj to the “sacred” Arab lands, it is commanded to perform the hajj in their own heart and make sure of the sincerity of their devotion to Allah and the fulfillment of his unconditional commands. “That is why on the upcoming holidays and on the holidays themselves, each of us should make a hajj in our own heart and our own soul in order to honestly answer the question: do we fully fulfill what our religion requires of everyone? We must not forget that in Islam, preparation for the holidays must first of all be used to strengthen faith, strictly follow religious instructions and prayers, commemorate the deceased relatives and friends, and try to deepen the knowledge of the fundamentals of Islam.

It is believed that the hajj is not only a religious way to please Allah and win his mercy, but also a good opportunity to communicate with each other: “Proclaim to people, O prophet, that Allah commanded those who can go to this House … to they received religious benefit from performing the Hajj (pilgrimage), as well as the benefit of meeting and communicating with their Muslim brothers, consulting with them about what is useful and good for them in religion and in the immediate life ”(K.22:27, 28). “Being a unique form of communication and ideological unity, the Hajj played an important historical, cultural and socio-political role in the medieval Muslim world. Hajj retains its ideological and political significance even today, being a form of unity for Muslims, a place and time for meetings of the leaders of Islamic states and discussion of important problems”160.

Source: Chapter 8. Rites in Islam – Unexpected Sharia [Text] / Mikhail Rozhdestvensky. – [Moscow: b. i.], 2011. – 494, [2] p.


150. Nimeh Ismail Navvab. Hajj is the journey of a lifetime. Rites of Abraham. https://www.islamreligion.com/en/

151. Sufism on the scales of Sharia. P. 20 https://molites.narod.ru/

152. Orthodox theologians about Islam. Ya.D.Koblov. Personality of Muhammad. Application. The legend of Muhammadan about the night journey of Muhammad to heaven. M. “Imperial tradition” 2006 p.246

153. Source Water Zam-Zam. Her virtues and blessings. https://www.islam.ru/

154. Prophets. True faith is the faith of our ancestors. . ru/Server/Iman/Maktaba/Tarikh/proroki.dos

155. Institute of Religion and Politics. Hundreds of dead again in the Mina Valley. https://www.i-p.ru//

156. Riyadh counted illegal pilgrims during the Hajj period. https://www.izvestia.ru/news/

157. Cit. by: Umrah (small pilgrimage). https://www.umma.ru/

158. Cit. Quoted from: Sufism on the Scales of Shariah. P. 14. https://molites.narod.ru/

159. Mufti Ravil Gaynutdin. Appeal on the occasion of Eid-Al-Adha (Feast of Sacrifice) April 1995

160. Gulnara Kerimova. Road to the House of Allah. https://www.cidct.org.ua/ru/about/

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