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International20th century invention found in Persian manuscripts

20th century invention found in Persian manuscripts

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Petar Gramatikov
Petar Gramatikovhttps://europeantimes.news
Dr. Petar Gramatikov is the Editor in Chief and Director of The European Times. He is a member of the Union of Bulgarian Reporters. Dr. Gramatikov has more than 20 years of Academic experience in different institutions for higher education in Bulgaria. He also examined lectures, related to theoretical problems involved in the application of international law in religious law where a special focus has been given to the legal framework of New Religious Movements, freedom of religion and self-determination, and State-Church relations for plural-ethnic states. In addition to his professional and academic experience, Dr. Gramatikov has more than 10 years Media experience where he hold a positions as Editor of a tourism quarterly periodical “Club Orpheus” magazine – “ORPHEUS CLUB Wellness” PLC, Plovdiv; Consultant and author of religious lectures for the specialized rubric for deaf people at the Bulgarian National Television and has been Accredited as a journalist from “Help the Needy” Public Newspaper at the United Nations Office in Geneva, Switzerland.

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Chromium steel was considered one of the main inventions of the 20th century, but archaeologists from Great Britain, having examined medieval Persian manuscripts, discovered a recipe for its receipt.

This is a 10-11 century manuscript by the Persian scholar Abu-Raikhan Biruni. Researchers have found chromium as one of the ingredients in a recipe for making steel.

In Chahak in southern Iran, steel was made from the 12th to the 19th century – it was here that scientists were able to find waste from steel production. They examined the remains of charcoal by the radiocarbon method, as well as by means of electron microscopy. As a result, they were able to find the remains of chromite, which Biruni wrote about. At the same time, 1-2 mass percent of chromium was also found in the remains of steel.

According to the head of the study, Dr. Rachel Alipur, the work proves that chromium steel was invented in Persia 1,000 years ago, in the 11th century. In addition, a chemical indicator was obtained, thanks to which it will be possible to determine the place of origin of objects made of crucible steel, which are currently kept in museums and private collections.

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